Applied to single surveys designed for a specific purpose as opposed
to continuous, regularly repeated, or syndicated surveys.
Any research into advertising except media research, particularly
creativeresearch, pre-tests of advertisements, and evaluation of
The age groups most often used in British surveys of adults are
those of theNational Readership Survey (up to 19, 20/24, 25/34,
35/44, 45/54, 55/64, 65 and over) or broader groups based on these.
Market research companies are often referred to as research agencies.
A means of helping people to remember things by reminding them
of associated events or by prompting.
The summarizing of data in a way that is intended to make them
more readily comprehensible
analysis of variance
A method of allocating the overall variation of a sample statistic
among several variables, to show the strength and statistical significance
of the associations with each of these variables.
A representation on film or video of a television advertisement,
using a sequence of drawings or simple cartoon animation. Used for
advertisement pre-testing to avoid the production costs of a finished
||Monitoring the effectiveness of an individual
in carrying out assignments in accordance with training and instructions.
The sum of the observed values of a statistic divided by the number
ascription of adjectives
A method of measuring brand images, by showing a list of brands
and asking to which of them a particular adjective or adjectival
||The psychological technique of free or
spontaneous association is used in qualitative research. It consists
of eliciting the words or thoughts inspired by a number of stimuli,
which might eg comprise pictures or possible names for a new product.
||An attitude, as a basic psychological concept,
is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable
or unfavourable manner (~A with respect to a given object.
||A difference between people, households
etc. of a qualitative rather than a quantitative kind, eg sex, region
or between brands, eg name, packaging material. colour. Also used
to refer to the individual descriptions which comprise an image battery,
even where these are presented in the form of scales.
The percentage of the total viewing audience viewing a particular
|Audit Bureau of Circulation
||The ABC validates circulation claims for
newspapers and magazines by collecting sales returns in a set format
and carrying out spot checks of publishers' internal auditing procedures.
||In data collection, an individual who on
behalf of the organisation calculates volume sales by counting in-store
stock and delivery invoices.
||Note:The term auditor is a specific
term used in market research and is unrelated to auditing within business
in general or assessment auditing.
|automatic interaction detection
A method of dividing a sample into groups based on analysis of
variance, in such a way as to maximize the discriminating power
of the groups for some dependent variable. The dependent variable
might be eg the frequency of purchase of a product.
The sample is divided progressively into parts, using demographic
or other independent variables to define these parts. At each stage
the program searches among the independent variables for the split
which maximizes the between-group variance and minimizes the within-group
variance for the dependent variable. Each group is subdivided until
further splits become statistically insignificant, or sample sizes
become too small.
This method produces a hierarchy of variables which are significant
predictors. It has become a popular form of multivariate analysis
for market reses arch purposes, especially for the selection and
definition of target groups.
|average issue readership
||The average number of people who see an
issue of a periodical publication.
||Brand awareness and awareness of advertising
are often monitored by means of tracking studies. Unprompted or spontaneous
brand awareness is measured by questions such as, 'Which brands of
… can you think of?' Prompted awareness or recognition is measured
by showing a list of brands and asking, 'Which of these… have you
||A check by a supervisor or by the field
office that an interview has been properly carried out, by telephoning
or writing to a proportion of the respondents, or sometimes by means
of a personal visit.
||The base number for percentaging, on a
typical market research table, appears at the top of each column of
percentages. Where both unweighted and weighted bases are shown, the
unweighted base is the number of respondents in the sub-sample,and
the weighted base is the number actually used for percentaging.
||An approach to decision-making which combines
previously- estimated probabilities with the information derived from
a survey or experiment.
A survey which is carried out before an event, usually some kind
of advertising or promotion, and repeated afterwards, in order to
detect and measure its effects.
||What people do as opposed to what they
think. In a marketing context, behavioural research, behavioural segmentation,
and behavioural theory are concerned with people's buying and consuming
||An aspect of survey design which causes
the expected value of an estimate derived from the survey to differ
from its true value.
||Scales with two ends such as 'sweet - sour'
may be described as bipolar, whereas a monopolar scale would establish
the perceived degree of sweetness, eg from 'extremely sweet' to 'not
sweet at all'.
||Bivariate data consist of observed pairs
of values of two variables or attributes, from which it is possible
to evaluate the relationship between them.
||A product test in which the identity of
the brand is not revealed. The reactions obtained, when compared with
reactions to the branded product, provide a measure of the effects
||Hidden cameras have been used to record
the speed at which people blink while looking at advertisements, packs
etc., in the belief that a slower blink rate indicates a greater openness
||A method of statistical forecasting, based
on analysis of time series.
||A code which represents two or more answers
to a question, eg a single code used for all answers in the range
25-34 to a question inquiring about the respondent's age.
A product or service which has been given an identity; it has a
brand name and the added value of a brand image.
||The set of associations which a brand has
acquired for an individual.
||The position of brands on a map. usually
in two dimensions, which represents important factors influencing
choice. These factors may include eg price, product attributes, user
characteristics, and brand images.
||Changes in the brand purchased by a consumer
within a product field, eg as recorded by consumer panels.
||A sub-group used in analysis. These groups
are often based on classification data, eg a breakdown by sex would
comprise subgroups of men and of women.
1. A research brief is a statement from the sponsor setting out
the objectives and background of a study, and perhaps the method,
timing etc, so that the researcher can plan accordingly.
2. Briefing of interviewers prior to a survey is intended to ensure
that they understand fully the task to be undertaken.
|Broadcasters' Audience Research Board
||Since 1983, BARB has measured television
audiences and viewers' reactions to television programmes on behalf
of the BBC and the ITCA. The audience measurement system replaced
the former JICTAR contract.
|Business Statistics Office
||One of the main parts of the Government
Statistical Service, the BSO collects and publishes a wide variety
of statistics on behalf of the UK government.
||Questions about the likelihood of buying
a product during a future period.
||Questions as to whether a consumer would
be willing to buy a product at a number of different prices form the
basis of the GaborGranger method of pricing research. These questions
are used to plot a 'buy-response curve', which relates the percentage
willing to buy the product, to the price.
||Data capture by means of Computer Assisted
1. A further attempt to contact a pre-selected respondent, telephone
number,etc, or to secure co-operation, where the first attempt failed.
2. A secondinterview with the same respondent in the course of
a single survey.
3. A call made by a supervisor to check that an interview has been
carried out correctly.
||An extension of multiple regression to
deal with two or more dependent variables.
||Data capture by means of Computer Assisted
||A projective technique in which respondents
are asked to fill in 'speech balloons' in a comic-strip representation
of a situation relating to the topic of inquiry.
||Data capture by means of Computer Assisted
||Enumeration of all the individuals in a
||Research carried out by a team of interviewers
working at or from a single centre, eg hall tests, telephone interviewing.
|Central Statistical Office
||The CSO co-ordinates the collection of
UK government statistics by the Business Statistics Office and the
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys.
||A statistical test as to whether a sample
distribution conforms sufficiently to some other distribution. In
market research, it is most often used to test a contingency table
for the significance of any association between the two characteristics
upon which the table is based.
||In market research this relates to a group
of questions and observations, usually placed at the end of an interview.
These tend to be of fairly standard form, and cover eg age, sex, marital
status, household composition, status within the household (as head
of household or housewife), social grade, terminal education age,
tenure of home.
||The internal or external client commissioning
or contracting the project or parts of the project.
Research to aid product development, in which a group of respondents
are invited to provide opinions, and modifications are made to the
product before a further group is invited.
A question which has a limited number of logical answers (eg 'yes'
and 'no'), as opposed to an open or open-ended question.
||A group of neighbouring individuals. A
geographical cluster comprises people, households, etc., in a relatively
small area. Also used to denote a group of-people with similar attitudes
or characteristics, or a group of brands which are perceived to be
similar to one another.
An approach to multivariate analysis which aims to identify groups
of individuals that are relatively similar to each other, and dissimilar
to individuals in other groups.
||A form of multi-stage sampling in which
the final stage is the interviewing of all individuals within the
selected group, such as everyone at a selected address.
Almost all samples of individuals for commercial face-to-face interviews
embody clustering to some degree. Instead of the individuals being
spread evenly over the area occupied by the population, they are
concentrated into a number of neighbouring groups or clusters. It
is a consequence of multi-stage sampling, and is done in order to
||A symbol used to classify data for the
purpose of analysis.
|Code of Conduct
||The joint Code of Conduct of the Market
Research Society and the Industrial Marketing Research Association
consists of a set of principles and rules with which their members
undertake to comply.
||The result of grouping closely similar
responses used in coding open-ended questions, created through looking
at a proportion of the responses in detail.
||The process of allocating codes, especially
where open-ended questions require that this is done after fieldwork
||The allocation of codes to groups of closely
similar responses recorded against open-ended questions, in order
to analyse that information together with the rest of the data.
||A set of codes used to categorize answers,
usually to a single question, sometimes to several questions taken
|computer - assisted telephone interviewing
||Telephone interviewing conducted with the
aid of a computer. The computer displays to the interviewer the question
that is to be asked, together with precoded answers (if any).
A study intended to obtain reactions to an idea for an advertisement
or a product, before investing in production.
||The values of a parameter which form the
upper and lower boundaries of a confidence interval.
||A method of evaluating consumer preferences
among product concepts which vary in respect of several attributes,
based on asking people to rank a number of contrasting combinations
in order from the most to the least preferred.
1. The ultimate user of a product, as opposed to the purchaser.
2. Moregenerally, people or households who use or buy goods and
services, as distinct from the producers and distributors.
A sample of individuals whose purchases, product usage, andlor
media consumption etc. are recorded over a period.
||Somebody contacted in the course of a survey,
but who has not necessarily completed an interview.
||A record of the contacts and attempted
contacts made by an interviewer.
||Research which is undertaken on a continuing
basis, or is regularly repeated at frequent intervals, as opposed
to ad hoc surveys. Examples include retail audits, consumer panels,
and tracking studies.
||A type of diagrammatic or graphic rating
scale, which does not restrict the respondent to any specific number
of discrete response categories.
A group of individuals who provide a standard of comparison in
a test. They are exposed to no test stimuli, or to stimuli for which
the results are known.
||A method of estimating the cover or reach
of a poster campaign in a town. The formula involves the number of
'average' sites used, and two parameters, one of which is a function
of the population size.
||A test of advertising copy, intended to
discover how well it succeeds in communicating and how consumers react
||The image of an enterprise as a whole rather
than of the particular goods or services which it supplies.
The interdependence between attributes or variables, particularly
the relationship between the values or ranks of two variables.
||The cover, coverage or reach of a single
advertisement is the percentage of the target audience to whom it
||Research applied to the creation (usually)
of advertisements. Embraces advertising pre-tests, communication tests,
concept tests, copy tests, etc.
1. Extended group discussions in which a variety of projective
techniques are employed.
2. Groups using brainstorming and similar methods for product development
||A two-dimensional table, based on answers
to two of the questions included in a survey, eg brands used by frequency
of product use.
||The correction of data records to make
them consistent in relation to filters and data logic.
A general term covering the collection of information such as:
- face to face interviewing in-home, in the street, in a central
venue, at place of work;
- group discussions, depth interviews;
- telephone interviewing from a telephone centre;
- telephone interviewing from interviewers’ home;
- auditors collecting in-store information;
- evaluators conducting mystery shopping and client service
- respondents completing self-completion/postal questionnaires;
- through electronic techniques.
||The input of questionnaire information
into electronic format ready for survey analysis.
||The combination of partial information
from separate surveys, which have been carried out using independent
samples drawn from the same population, to form a single database.
||A general term covering coding, data entry
and editing/data cleaning that prepares data for analysis.
|Data processing (DP)
||Data preparation and data analysis.
||The person with overall responsibility
for the project during data preparation and/or data processing stages.
||The Data Protection Act 1984 regulates
the maintenance and use of automatically processed personal information.
||Data relating to the completed questionnaire
of an individual respondent, item/transaction (ie. reportable unit).
||A set of computerized data available for
||An informal verbal report by a qualitative
researcher, or by an interviewer following completion of pilot interviews.
||A method of forecasting which derives a
consensus view from a group of experts.
||Demographic variables, eg sex, age, marital
status and social grade, normally comprise a large part of the classification
data obtained in market research interviews.
|depth interview A
||An informal face-to-face interview, which
is only loosely structured, and appears more as a conversation than
as a question-and answer session.
|depth interview B
||An interview that is not confined to a
As opposed to the collection of primary data via field research,
desk research is based on the use of secondary data, eg directories,
lists, statistics, reports of past surveys, and published information
||See PAIRED COMPARISON.
A type of rating scale, which is distinguished from numerical and
from verbal scales, and is also known as a graphic scale or spatial
||A means by which members of panels may
record their behaviour over a period of time, eg purchases, consumption,
television viewing, journeys.
||A question to which there are only two
possible answers (apart from 'don't know', 'no preference', etc.).
A question asked directly of the respondent about his own behaviour,
opinions, etc., as opposed to an indirect question. Most questions
used in structured questionnaires are direct.
An observational survey of a sample of retail outlets, which measures
the presence or otherwise of specified products, brands and pack
sizes. Prices and display may also be recorded.
Procedures for tidying up survey data. These begin with inspections
of returned questionnaires to ensure that they conform with sampling
requirements and that key questions have been answered.
||A comparison of actual responses with possible
responses, as defined by questionnaire structure and logic and then,
if necessary, rejecting or amending some responses.
||The annual Register of Electors, which
is based on returns made in October and published in February, is
in Britain the sampling frame most commonly used for random samples
(except for telephone surveys).
|electronic data capture (EDC)
||Use of computers to record or assist the
recording of primary research data.
||NOTE: This includes CATI and CAPI versions
and other methods.
A survey to establish (usually) the proportion of households possessing
certain kinds of appliance, etc.
||An individual responsible for running,
singly or jointly, a project or parts of a project.
||Research undertaken where little is already
known about the subject, often as a preliminary to a survey. Relatively
quick and cheap methods are usually employed, eg desk research, group
discussions, omnibus surveys, and street or telephone interviews on
a small scale.
||A method of smoothing a time series and
preparing a short-term projection. Each projected value which produces
the smoothed curve is a weighted average of all observations for previous
points in time, the weights forming a geometric series which diminishes
as the time recedes.
||A single opportunity for a member of the
target audience to see an advertisement.
||Group discussions lasting several hours,
often employing projective and other techniques.
||Also known as the F-ratio or variance-ratio
test, this will show whether two or more samples with different means
could plausibly derive from the same population.
||This fully descriptive term is to be preferred
to the term personal interview, which may sometimes be taken to include
both face-to-face and telephone interviews.
||A branch of multivariate analysis based
on the correlation coefficient, used mainly to investigate the structure
|Field based individual
||In data collection, an individual who works
alone without direct and full time supervision.
The interviewers and supervisory staff employed by or available
to a company, usually a market research company.
As opposed to desk research, the collection of primary data from
external sources by means of surveys, observation and experiment.
An instruction printed on a questionnaire as to which questions
should be asked next, depending on previous answers.
||A model of the relationships between behavioural
intentions on the one hand, and beliefs and attitudes on the other.
A manual method of counting classified data.
||The expected magnitude of some quantity
or the estimated probability of an event at a future time.
||The number of occurrences of some particular
kind of event, eg answers to a question.
||The application of rules specified for
any data items which are deemed to be incorrect (eg. a multiple answer
given when only a single answer is required).
||NOTE: These rules are written as a computer
program and applied to data records relating to a project.
||A method of pricing research, used for
new products and variants of or improvements to existing products.
Respondents are shown eg a test pack, and asked whether they would
be willing to buy it at each of a randomized set of prices.
A method of classifying households based on multivariate analysis
of data from the Census of Population.
||The scaling-up of the results of a survey.
experiment, test market, etc., to the whole population or market.
||Two or more respondents discussing an issue
|group discussion (also known as focus
||One of the basic methods of qualitative
research, often used in exploratory work and when the subject matter
involves social activities, habits and status.
|hall test A
||A test for which people are taken to some
fixed location, often a public hall.
|hall test B
||Research conducted at a central venue (eg.
car clinic, product testing, advert testing)
||Sorting questionnaires, counting and tabulating
the answers manually rather than by computer.
|head of household
That member of a household who either owns the accommodation occupied
by the household or is responsible for the rent, or, if the accommodation
is occupied rent-free, the person who is responsible for the household
having it rent-free.
If, however, this person is a married woman whose husband is also
a member of the household, then the husband counts as the head of
||A term deriving from the use of punch cards
in data analysis, meaning a simple count of all the codes present
in all of the records, without any breakdowns.
|A summary count of individual data items
on the computer file
||A panel of households, used for regular
measurement of product purchases and in some cases consumption. Data
may be collected by means of diaries, interviewers, and dustbin checks.
This technique requires the survey to be sorted into an order so
that respondents with similar answers on a range of key variables
are placed together.
||A private household consists of one or
more people living together, whose food and other household expenses
are usually managed as one unit.
||Any supposition, whether or not based on
evidence, or an assumption made as a basis for reasoning.
||People's perceptions or impressions of
a product, service, company, person, etc., however these may have
been formed. and however much they may reflect reality.
An inducement to co-operate in a market research study.
||A question which seeks the respondent's
views about other people's behaviour or attitudes, used in qualitative
research as a projective technique to uncover ideas which the respondent
might otherwise be reluctant to reveal.
||A product test, usually, conducted in participants'
homes rather than at some central location, hall, store, etc.
||Research conducted by the organization
that wants the information, rather than by a research agency etc.
acting on its behalf.
|ink blot test
||The Rorschach and Holtzman ink blot tests,
more widely used in clinical work than in market or social research,
are projective tests in which the subject is asked to describe what
he sees in a number of haphazard shapes.
||Quotas which specify the numbers of interviews
required in each cell of a matrix defined by the specified characteristics,
eg with a matrix defined by sex, age and social grade.
||A contact with an informant, or sometimes
a group of informants, in order to obtain information for a research
||An individual who on behalf of the organisation
recruits/interviews respondents face-to-face or by telephone.
||NOTE: Those who conduct depth recruitment
and interviews are treated as interviewers.
||Directions to the interviewer printed on
the questionnaire, including eg filters or skips. They are usually
distinguished from the questions by the use of capitals, or sometimes
by boldface or italic type.
|Interviewer Quality Control Scheme
||Established independently in 1986, the
IQCS assumed the function of verifying the quality of fieldwork, that
had been one of the purposes of the former Interviewer Card Scheme
of the Market Research Society.
|joint Industry Committee for National
||JICNARS represents the Press Research Council,
IPA and ISBA, and controls the National Readership Survey.
||Technically, any non-random sample can
be described as a judgment or purposive sample. Statistical theory
relating to random sampling cannot properly be employed to calculate
confidence limits for estimates derived from judgment samples.
||A table for use by interviewers in random
sample surveys, to select one person from a household. The procedure
gives an approximately equal chance of selection to each member of
laboratory test market
|Any kind of consumer research or simulation
aimed at forecasting the sales of a new product, short of actually
selling it in the normal way. is occasionally described as a laboratory
||For the purpose of applying standard statistical
tests, a sample is described as large where the sampling distribution
is normal, or pproximately so. This is usually taken to mean a sample
size of at least thirty, preferably fifty or more.
||A life-style, or lifestyle (the hyphen
is often omitted) is a way of life for a community or an individual,
expressed particularly in activities, interests and opinions, and
to some degree in the products and brands consumed. Various lifestyle
classifications have been devised for commercial use.
||A type of verbal rating scale in which
respondents are asked to indicate the extent of their agreement or
disagreement with a series of statements, eg for a number of brands.
Also called an agree/disagree scale.
|logic data entry
||Data entry processes which are programmed
for specific projects to check question skips and response range checks.
||NOTE: Automatic serial numbering alone
does not constitute logic data entry.
||Rules or formulae by which the elements
in one set can each be made to correspond to a single element in a
||A diagram which shows the relative positions
of brands in terms of the most important brand characteristics, sometimes
used to summarize the findings of attitude research.
||Market research has sometimes been distinguished
from marketing research, to mean the collection of data about markets
by means of surveys.
|Market Research Society
||The MRS was founded in 1946, and is the
incorporated UK professional body for those using survey techniques
for market, social and economic research. The Society aims to promote
and protect the interests of the profession, and to maintain and improve
standards of competence.
||The proportion of a market accounted for
by a particular brand or supplier, either by volume or by value, or
sometimes in terms of the number of consumers.
||The management function responsible for
identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer requirements profitably.
||The set of choices made by an organization
in respect of those marketing factors which it can control. Important
categories in the marketing mix are the so-called four Ps, namely
product, price. place, and promotion.
||The arithmetic mean. Sometimes refers to
other kinds of average.
||May refer to any means of communication.
In an advertising context, includes independent television and radio,
newspapers and magazines, poster sites, cinemas, and other means by
which advertising is communicated.
Research into readership and media audiences.
||A plan for an advertising campaign setting
out the media to be used, when and how often the advertisement is
to appear, and other such details.
||The middle of a set of numbers, one-half
of the numbers being larger and one-half being smaller.
||The most frequently occurring value in
a set of observations.
||The leader of a group discussion.
||An individual who is responsible for facilitating
the interaction of the group discussion members, and for capturing
the data generated.
||A monadic product test is one in which
each person tests just one product, as distinct from comparative tests,
eg diadic and triadic tests.
||An attitude scale is monopolar, as opposed
to bipolar, where it measures one quality only.
Small-scale studies aimed at discovering reasons for people's behaviour.
||For a time series, a series of averages
such that each covers the same number of successive periods.
||An independent service provided to the
public to verify the legitimacy of UK market research agency members.
||Also termed syndicated research, this describes
studies for which the costs and the findings are shared amongst a
number of clients.
||A survey in which some information is collected
from the whole sample, and additional information is collected from
sub-samples, whether at the same time or later.
|multiple choice question
||A closed question with more than two possible
answers apart from 'don't know', sometimes termed a cafeteria question.
||A mathematical model in which a dependent
variable is represented as a linear function of so-called independent
or predicated variables.
||A sample which is drawn in stages. The
units sampled at each stage are each regarded as being composed of
a number of units of the next stage, until the final sampling units
are reached, ie the people who are actually interviewed.
Multivariate data comprise observations for each of which three
or more variate values are recorded. Multivariate statistical methods
are those which simultaneously examine the relationships among a
number of variables.
||Client service evaluation process involving
individuals who on behalf of the organisation collect information
by behaving as customers and report their findings as a way of monitoring
the quality of performance.
|National Readership Survey
A continuous readership survey established in 1954 by the Institute
of Practitioners in Advertising, and since 1968 conducted under
the aegis of the joint Industry Committee for National Readership
||See MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING
||A small and specialized market segment,
that is capable of being profitably exploited.
||That part of a pre-selected sample of named
individuals, or of any random sample, from which no response is obtained.
||Also known as the normal curve and the
Gaussian distribution. A statistical frequency distribution, which
is of particular importance in sampling theory, since it is a close
approximation to the sampling distributions of many statistics derived
from reasonably large samples. It is used to make statements about
the confidence limits which may be attached to estimates derived from
random samples, and for tests of statistical significance.
||Normative beliefs and statements, as opposed
to positive beliefs and statements, are those which concern value
judgments. They express opinions about what ought to be.
||The central hypothesis in a test of statistical
||Any scale which is represented by numbers,
as distinguished from diagrammatic and from verbal scales.
A market research proposal incorporates a statement of the information
objectives of the project, and these may be explicitly related to
||The alternative to questioning as a way
of obtaining primary data.
||Collection of information without the involvement
of a respondent.
||NOTE: Excluding the processes of auditing
and mystery shopping.
||The basis of classification by social grade
and of other social status scales.
|off-the-shelf product or methodology
||A research product or methodology developed
and made available to meet the needs of more than one client.
||A survey which covers a number of topics,
usually for different clients.
||As opposed to a precoded question, one
where the answer is recorded verbatim, or as fully as practicable,
and the answers are coded at a later stage.
||A survey of opinions about political, social
and other issues of public interest, especially as a basis for forecasting
|opportunity -to -see
||A single impact, exposure, or opportunity
to see an advertisement is effectively defined by the method of audience
|In sensory evaluation, optimization
analysis can be carried out when sufficient data points are collected
on formula variables in a controlled research design.
||Ordinal numbers express precedence (first,
second, third, etc) and an ordinal scale is one which produces such
||Market research or social research body.
||See SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL.
A term covering posters, supersites, signs, facias, advertisements
on vehicles, and in general all advertising which appears in public
|Outdoor Site Classification and Audience
||OSCAR is the UK poster audience reses arch
system, launched in October 1985 by the Outdoor Advertising Association.
||A tendency for respondents to say that
they have done some thing more often, have consumed more of something,
etc., than is in fact the case.
||Any kind of market research to evaluate
a package design, in terms of eg its functional efficiency, its visual
impact at the point of sale, the image it conveys of the product,
and its influence on sales.
||A product test, also known as a diadic
test, in which people are asked to compare two products.
||A sample of people, households, or retail
outlets, or sometimes of other kinds of organization, from which information
is obtained on more than one occasion.
||The proportion of a population, or of a
subgroup, who have a certain characteristic.
||An audimeter with provision for recording
whether individuals are present.
||Usually taken to mean an interview carried
out face-to-face between an interviewer and a respondent.
||A pilot survey is a small-scale replica
of a main survey, carried out beforehand in order to reveal the problems
likely to be encountered, or to help in the design of the main survey.
A product test in which samples of the product are given to people
to try in their own homes, or wherever the product is normally used.
||A sample survey in which political opinions
form the subject matter.
||The whole of the material from which a
sample may be taken.
||Any survey carried out by post, using a
self-completion questionnaire or diary. A mail survey in American
||.Research to measure audiences for outdoor
advertising. See OSCAR.
||A question for which the respondent is
constrained to choose one or more from a set of allowable answers,
or where the interviewer is similarly constrained in recording the
||A product test in which consumers are asked
to compare a number of trial products, and to express their preferences.
||Refers to market research conducted before
some event, such as a product launch or advertising campaign, and
||A sample in which the individuals who are
to be interviewed have been selected prior to fieldwork, as distinguished
from field sampling in which the interviewer makes the final selection.
||As opposed to post-test, a test of something
before it has been exposed to the public, particularly advertising
and promotional material.
||Response to a client enquiry that is a
priced response for specified work.
||NOTE: This may reference the research
design of another project.
||Any kind of research which aims to show
how demand for a product or service will vary with its price.
||Response to client enquiry for work which
includes some element of research design.
||An individual who on behalf of the organisation
recruits respondents for depth interviews or group discussions.
||NOTE: Those who conduct depth and group
recruitment are treated as recruiters if they do no other type of
||In data collection, a method of validating
the authenticity of responses and quality of interviewing in the telephone
centre by the manager or supervisor listening to both sides of an
||NOTE: This may be by using monitoring
equipment of voice recording media.
||The scope of population segment included
in the survey.
||An estimate derived from a sample is usually
different from the true value for the population as a whole. The term
standard error is often used to refer to sampling error.
||A numerical value assigned to an observation,
eg an answer given in response to a rating scale.
||A brief interview for the purpose of locating
individuals with certain characteristics who are needed for a survey.
|second person review
||A review carried out by a second suitably
(or similar) skilled individual to confirm the research objective
can be met by the proposed design.
||A part of a market or population.
||Division of a market into parts, each of
which has identifiable characteristics of actual or potential economic
interest. Most often segmentation is in terms either of characteristics
of the product or service, or of purchaser/user characteristics.
||A self-completion questionnaire is one
that is completed by the informant rather than by an interviewer.
||A commonly-used attitude scaling technique,
also known as Osgood scales. It is a bipolar diagrammatic rating scale.
||An interview or questionnaire in which
many or even all of the questions may have been specified in advance,
but the questions are typically of open or open-ended form, and there
is extensive use of probing techniques.
||This is a research technique to assist
technical, research and development management design better products.
Data are mapped to show where the subject being researched stands
against consumer preferences and in comparison with competition.
||A record kept on file confirming that the
specified action(s) have been carried out, by whom, and on what date.
||Analysis of sample data, to show whether
or not they support a given hypothesis about the parent population(s).
|simple data entry
||Data entry process containing no in-built
|simulated test market
||See LABORATORY TEST MARKET.
|SMART (Salient Multi-Attribute Research
||This technique takes the view that a better
way to measure interest in a service company's change is in terms
of improvements. The aim of the analysis is specialized since it concentrates
on identifying areas of highest cost/benefit in service areas.
|social grade (or socio-economic class)
The socio-economic classification system used by the National Readership
Survey, and generally for market research in the UK. The social
grade of an informant is based on the occupation or former occupation
of the head of the family unit, or in certain circumstances, eg
where the head of the family unit is retired or unemployed and has
a low income, it may be based on the occupation of the chief wage
earner. Usually this person is also the head of the household. The
SocialGrade Social Status Occupation
A Upper middle class Higher managerial/administrative/ professional
B Middle class Intermediate managerial/administrative/ professional
Cl Lower middle class Supervisory or clerical and junior
C2 Skilled working class Skilled manual workers
D Working class Semi and unskilled manual workers
E Those at lowest levels of subsistence State pensioners
(no other earnings), casual or lowest grade workers
The six classes are often combined into four (AB/C1/C2/DE) or into
||Specifically related to executive/business
to business/ medical/specialist samples or depth interviewing.
Search Engine Optimisation Services
|Online Marketing and SEO for branding and rankings
||One of the ten regions into which Great
Britain is divided according to the Registrar General's system.
||A set of drawings together with a script
and a description of sound effects, which sets out the action in a
||A technique used in sampling, to ensure
that the sample is representative in terms of the factor(s) used for
stratification. The population is first divided into a number of sub-groups
or strata, eg by geographical area. The required numbers are then
sampled from each stratum.
||A brief interview conducted in the street
or other public place, usually employing a quota sample.
||A structured questionnaire sets out precisely
the wording of the questions and the order in which they are to be
An individual who on behalf of the organisation undertakes at least
one of the following data collection tasks:
- interviewing and selecting new recruits;
- allocating work/progress chasing and/or project and quota
NOTE:1 If an individual only validates data collection work
they are not deemed to be a supervisor.
NOTE:2 An individual employed full or part-time as an office-based
member of staff is not deemed to be a supervisor.
||An individual or organisation that provides
products or services that have an impact on the services delivered
to the client by the research organisation.
||A test of statistical significance, based
on the use of tables of Student's t-distribution. This describes the
sampling distribution of the mean for small samples, ie where the
sample size is less than 30 or so. The t-test may be used to compute
confidence intervals, to test whether an observed sample mean differs
significantly from some expected value, and to test the difference
between two sample means.
||A device which permits brief glimpses of
stimulus material, the exposures being controllable in small steps
from .01 second or less.
||A central office housing a group of telephone
lines used for market research recruitment/interviewing.
||A set of sequential values which are dependent
on time, ie statistics of quantitative observations of some kind which
relate to different periods of or moments in time.
||A list of the topics to be covered in a
depth interview or group discussion.
||A research method aimed at discovering
the most attractive combination(s) of attributes for a product or
service. Price may be included as one of the attributes, represented
at a number of levels.See also CONJOINT MEASUREMENT.
||Observation of the flow of vehicles or
people past a point or along a route, used in eg poster audience research
and transport planning.
||A statistical measure of the variability
or dispersion of a set of numbers. It is the arithmetic mean of the
squared differences between each number and the mean of all the numbers.
||A variable which has an associated frequency
distribution, eg all the quantities measured in a survey, whether
facts or opinions, can be described as variates.
|verbal (rating) scale
||Any kind of scale for the measurement of
attitudes or behaviour in which the permissible answers are expressed
verbally, as distinguished from diagrammatic or numerical scales.
||A checking process during data coding and
data entry stages undertaken by a second person.
||Venues specifically arranged to accommodate
||Respondents who attend a group discussion
for the first time.
||Anything which is shown to someone as an
aid to communication. In market research the term is applied both
to the prompt cards etc. used in interviews.
||A sample to which post-weighting has been
applied, ie weighting after fieldwork.